Hahahaha I'm on Top Today :P
I love the martial art of judo, it's among my favorite, nd the only art I've studied. Judo is a form a Japanese martial art that involves grappling, a lot like American wrestling. It was created by Dr. Kano, Jigoro in 1882. Judo translates into "gentle way", because there is no punches or kicks involved in the art. The art is entirely throwing, sweeping, pinning, choking, and arm/leg bars, the aim of the game is to gain control of your opponents.
Pinning has four basic different holds/pins, which are the side hold, the scarf hold, (i forgot the actual term for the next but their essentially) body hold, and the head hold. You must keep a hold for 25 seconds in order to win a match by a hold, and if the person breaks out of a hold, yet you escape and try another hold, you start the count down from one again. the holds are designed so that you can transfer from one hold to another in the event your opponent is close to escape.
Judo has so many throws that it hard to name them all, but my personal favorite is called O-goshi, which means major hip throw, and it involves you reaching around your opponent and lifting him on your hip and flipping them around till they land on the floor/mat. There is many holds, but they are divided into essentially separate classes, you have sweeps, lifts, and sacrifice throws. A sacrifice throw is when you place yourself at risk to losing a match, because it involves both you and your opponent falling tho the ground and if you land on your back first, you lose (more on that later.), sacrifice throws are more or less counters attacks.
First penalty given will be a warning which is noted for score. Second penalty will be scored as "yuko" for the opponent. Third penalty will be scored as "waza-ari". The fourth penalty is called "hansoku make" which is just a free ippon. With an hansoku make the match will end, and the player who got hansoku make will be disqualified.