Mythology in the Raven
1. In Greek mythology, the raven symbolized prophecy and was associated with the god, Apollo. They also can mean good luck because Ravens are the messengers of the gods to the mortal world. In Poe's poem, it could mean that the Raven is telling him something.
"What this grim, ungainly, ghastly, gaunt and ominous bird of yore
Meant in croaking “Nevermore.”
This I sat engaged in guessing, but no syllable expressing
To the fowl whose fiery eyes now burned into my bosom’s core;"
2. Angels are supernatural beings that are in many religions and beliefs and are often seen as benevolent beings who serve their god. In many religions, they are the guardians of humans and can move through Heaven and Earth. Angels have their own rankings and Seraphim are on the top of the Angelic hierarchy. The narrator believes that the angels are guiding him through his heartbreak and telling that he will see Lenore again.
"Swung by Seraphim whose foot-falls tinkled on the tufted floor.
“Wretch," I cried, “thy God hath lent thee—by these angels he hath sent thee
Respite—respite and nepenthe, from thy memories of Lenore;
Quaff, oh quaff this kind nepenthe and forget this lost Lenore!”"
3. Ghost are spirits of the dead and have a range of meaning. Most of the time, ghost as seen as dreadful and vengeful spirits. Ghosts in this poem could represent Lenore's death or the narrator "death" from all his heartbreak.
"Ah, distinctly I remember it was in the bleak December;
And each separate dying ember wrought its ghost upon the floor."
4. The Devil, or known as Lucifer, the first fallen angel condemned by God to stay in Hell for attempted usurpation. He is known as the source of all evil on Earth and human sin. The devil represents the evilness in his heart after Lenore's death or how evil he believes the raven is because he is telling him Lenore is gone.
“Prophet!” said I, “thing of evil!—prophet still, if bird or devil!—
Whether Tempter sent, or whether tempest tossed thee here ashore,"
5. Pallas is Athena's epithet name. Athena is the goddess of wisdom and Pallas is told in this is story to represent the raven's knowledge of something that narrator doesn't know and want to find out.
"Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door—
Perched, and sat, and nothing more."